Contextual questions to keep in mind for architecture:
What is the function?
In which era or period was it built?
Who was the patron?
What type of plan?
What is the structure or engineering system?
What is the aesthetic? (ornamentation, style, vocabulary)
How is the building sited? (reason for orientation, cardinal pts, direction, relationship to other structures, etc.)
How did one enter the building?
Describe special features of the interior space.
How does one move through the building?


Complete the chart to use as a study guide for architecture in all content areas:

Content Area

Building

Era/ Period/
Architect

Location

Dates

Function

Patron

Orientation

Plan
type

Structure type and
material

Entry & Movement through building

Special features/
aesthetics

1

8.
Stonehenge. Wiltshire, UK. Sandstone.

Neolithic Europe

Salsbury Plain,
England

c. 2500–1600 B.C.E.

Solar calendar/
worship

 

 - - -x - -

Towards the East

central

Post & lintel trilithons
cromlech

 

 

Summer solstice
Sun rises over
heel-stone

2

12.
White Temple and its ziggurat.

Sumerian

Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq)

c. 3500–3000 B.C.E.

temple on top of solid structural base

 

 

 

solid mound of mud brick.

bent axis
approach

 

2

17.
Great Pyramids (Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx.

Old Kingdom
Egyptian,

Giza, Egypt

c. 2550–2490 B.C.E.
Fourth Dynasty.

tomb

Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu

pyramids aligned with the cardinal points

 

 

Cut limestone

 

 

2

20.
Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall.

New
Kingdom
Egyptian

Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt

Temple: c. 1550 B.C.E.
Hall: c. 1250 B.C.E.

Temple

18th and 19th Dynasties

 

 

Hypostyle Hall.
Cut sandstone and mud brick.

 

 

2

21.
Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut.

New Kingdom
Egyptian

Near Luxor, Egypt. 18th Dynasty. c.1473–1458 B.C.E. Mortuary temple and Rock-cut tomb Hatshepsut     Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.    
2 26.
Athenian agora. Plan.
Archaic through Hellenistic Greek.   600 B.C.E.–150 C.E.              
2

30.
Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius and Xerxes.

Persian. Persepolis, Iran c. 520–465 B.C.E. Audience Hall Darius and Xerxes     Hypostyle Hall
Limestone.
   
2

35.
Acropolis,
including the Parthenon

Iktinos and
Kallikrates

Athens, Greece.

c. 447–410 B.C.E. Classical Greece

Temples

 

 

 

Marble.

 

 

 

2 38.
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon.
Hellenistic Greek. Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). c. 175 B.C.E. altar       Marble (architecture and sculpture).    
2

44. Colosseum

Imperial Roman

Rome, Italy

70–80 C.E.

Flavian Amphitheater

Flavius

   

Amphitheater
Stone and concrete.

 

 

2

45.
Forum of Trajan.

 

Apollodorus of Damascus

Rome, Italy.

Forum and markets: 106–112 C.E.; column completed 113 C.E.

Forum, markets,
and commemorative column

 

 

 

Brick and concrete (architecture); marble (column).

 

 

2

46.
Pantheon

Imperial Roman

Rome, Italy.

118–125 C.E.

temple to all gods

 

 

 

Concrete with stone facing.
Dome with oculus

 

 

3

48.
Catacomb of Priscilla

Late Antique Europe

Rome, Italy

c. 200–400 C.E.

tomb

 

 

 

Catacomb Excavated tufa and fresco.

 

 

3

49.
Santa Sabina

Late Antique Europe

Rome, Italy

c. 422–432 C.E.

Christian Church

 

 

basilica
plan

Brick and stone, wooden roof.

 

 

3

51.
San Vitale

Early Byzantine Europe

Ravenna, Italy.

c. 526–547 C.E.

Christian Church

Justinian

 

central plan

Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.

bent axis

 

3

52.
Hagia Sophia

 

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus

Constantinople (Istanbul)

532–537 C.E.

Christian Church

Justinian

 

central plan combined with basilica
plan

Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Don't stop here! Use Word or Google docs and add more rows. The complete chart, up to the 20th century, will be due in April.

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